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Reference List from Travelbooks on Japan

 
A Handbook for Travellers in Japan           1913  
 
p. 423-437  Section IV – The Island of Shikoku  
 
p.423  “The best way to getting to Shikoku is by steamer across the Inland Sea – say from Kobe or Onomichi or Tadotsu, from Okayama to Takamatsu from Hiroshima or Moji to Takahama etc.”
 
p.425 “Just outside Hiketa 1., is a hill dotted with Buddhist images representing the deities worshipped at the Eighty-Eight Holy Places (see p.437) of the island of Shikoku.”  
 
p.430 “Takahama – a pretty walk of 1/2hr over the pine-clad hills and affording splendid views seaward leads to the ancient Buddhist temple of Taisanji, dedicated to Ju-ichi-men Kwannon.”
 
p.437 “Uwajima – The view from the hill includes the Jishi-koku-yama on which stands eighty-eight images of Kobo Daishi representing the Eighty-eight Holy Places founded by him in Shikoku. A visit to them is considered equivalent to making the entire lengthy pilgrimage.”  
 
p. 437 “These Eighty-eight Holy Places (Shikoku Hachi-ju Hak-ka-sho) play an prominent part in the religious life of the island of Shikoku, over every district of which they are scattered, bands of pilgrims being constantly on the move from one to the other. The temples are dedicated to various Buddhist deities. The pilgrims carry a little cloth to sit on (shiri-tsube), which anciently formed part of the simple luggage of all wayfarers, a double thin wooded board (fuda-basami) serving to hold the visiting-cards which they paste to the doors or pillars of each shrine, and a small straw sandal worn – of all the extraordinary places – at the back of the neck, and intended to symbolize that great saint and traveler Kobo Daishi, in whose footsteps they follow.”   p.437 “Kochi… In the opposite direction, beyond Aoyagi-bashi, 1m, from the inn, stands a hill called Godai-san, crowned by the ancient Buddhist monastery of Chikurinji, one of the Eighty-eight Holy Places of Shikoku.”    
 
An Official Guide to East Asia Vol. II – South- Western Japan                                                                1914
 
p. 89-102  Shikoku  
 
p. 93 “Takahama is a sea-port four hour’s ferry trip from Ujina, near Hiroshima…Takahama, though not a large town, enjoys the largest shipping among the ports of this prefecture.”   “Tazanji (3/5m N.E of the town) is a well known Buddhist temple founded by a famous priest, Gyoki, some 1300 years ago.”  
 
p. 98 “Zentsuji – 24.6km from Takamatsu is famous as the birthplace of the great founder of the Shingon sect of Buddhism – Kobo Daishi (also called Kukai)”    
 
Japan, Imperial Government Railways            1915  
 
p. 39 Lines in Shikoku   “The best way to reach Shikoku is to take a branch line train from Okayama to Uno, whence regular ferry steamers of the Imperial Government Railways proceed to Takamatsu the terminus of the Sanuki line on the island of Shikoku.    
 
An Official Guide to Japan (Japanese Government Railways)                                                                       1933  
 
p. 419 “Zentsuji is famous as the birthplace of Kobo Daishi.”  
 
Japan – Pocket Guide to Japan                            1935  ( Board of Tourist Industry, Japanese Government Railways)  
 
Preface For further travel information overseas visitors are requested to refer to the “Official Guide to Japan” or “How to See…” series, issued by the Japanese Government Railways and Japan Tourist Bureau respectively.  
 
p.144 Mt. Koyasan (alt. 2,833ft) about 40 miles to the south of Osaka, is celebrated for the great monastery, founded in 816AD by the renowned Buddhist saint, Kobo Daishi, the great exponent of the Shingon Buddhism. … The holy place is visited by about a million pilgrims yearly.  
 
p. 149 Shikoku, the large island on the Pacific side of the Sea (1,648m in circumference) has many places of interest, especially on its Inland Sea side, including Yashima, which is one of the best vantage points from which to enjoy the seascape…. Takamatsu, the most important city of the island, is noted for its Ritsurin Park, typical Japanese garden. Murotozaki, a great rocky cape at the south-eastern extremity of Shikoku, is one of the “Eight Sights” of Japan (see p. 5)… The well-known Dogo Hot Springs are reached directly from Takamatsu by railway or by steamer from Ujina (Hiroshima) to Takahama, then 6m. by railway or motor-bus.   (p. 5 The “Eight Scenic Views” were then selected some years ago by the joint efforts of the Osaka Mainichi and Tokyo Nichi Nichi….They were….)  
 
  Japan              (Board of Tourist Industry)                                               1939  
 
Page 61. Board of Tourist Industry established in 1930 in the Department of Railways for the encouragement of tourist travel in Japan. Japan Tourist Bureau established in 1912 as a joint enterprise of the Government and private railways, steamships companies, hotels and all those catering to overseas visitors. Other Tourist Agencies – American Express Co. Yokohama, Thomas Cook & Son, Wagon-Lits Co. Kobe
 
Page 62 Tourists speaking English will have little difficulty in traveling in Japan. Almost everywhere they go, they will find people who understand English.  
 
Page 110 Sikoku, the large island on the Pacific side of the Sea has many places of interest, including Yasima, which is one of the best points from which to enjoy the Inland Sea’s charms…. Murotozaki, a great rocky cape at the south-eastern extremity of Sikoku, is one of the ‘Eight Sights’ of Japan (see p. 4) The well-known Dogo Hot Springs are reached directly from Takamatsu by railway, or by steamer from Uzina (Hirosima) to Takahama thence 6m by tramway or motor-bus. (p 4 “Eight Scenic View” selected by efforts of Osaka Mainici and the Tokyo Niti Niti)  
 
Page 107 Mt. Koyasan … is celebrated for the great monastery founded in 816AD by the renowned Singon Buddhist saint, Kobo Daisi… the holy place is visited yearly by about a million pilgrims.
 
  Japan Today                                                                                                                   1948
 
p. 252 “Dotted over the hills and dales of the island are Eighty-Eight Buddhist Temples dedicated to Kobo Daishi. Devotees of the Shingon sect in white costume are still seen making a pilgrimage to each on of these temples on foot.”  
 
Japan and People – Illustrated 1960
 
p. 265 Shikoku   ‘To ardent followers of Buddhism, Shikoku is a land of pilgrimages. Pilgrims make a round of the 88 holy temples scattered all over the island. These temples are all associated with Kobo Daishi (774-835) , a Buddhist saint and the founder of the Shingon sect.”  
 
p. 268 – photo of pilgrims
 
 
 
Japan – The Pocket Guide    JTB   1962.  
 
P120 Shikoku  (same as above quote)  
 
The New Official Guide Japan – General Information    JTB  1966  (big ed.)  
 
p. 862 “Travelers to Shikoku, especially in springtime, will often come across Buddhist pilgrims usually dressed in simple white kimono and wearing white mittens and leggings. They are followers of the great Buddhist priest Kukai, posthumously named Kobo Daishi, who was born in Sanuki Province in 774. Coming from all parts of Japan, they make pilgrimages to the eighty-eight sacred places in Shikoku. These are 88 Buddhist temples scattered over the four provinces of Shikoku founded by, or closely related to, the great priest. The number of these temples in each province is 24 in Awa, 16 in Tosa, 26 in Iyo and 27 in Sanuki. The custom of making pilgrimages has been popular since the beginning of the Edo period (1603-1867) and nowadays the number of pilgrims amounts to about 400, 000 annually. Usually it takes about 45 to 60 days for a pilgrim to complete his or her journey on foot. Recently some of the pilgrims are finding it more convenient to utilize modern conveyances to attain their purposes in less than a month.”